Wednesday, February 13, 2008

The Jewish Dynasty of the Makhiri


There has been much discussion about the Jewish Davidic families in Carolingian and Merovingian France especially since the publication of Professor Zuckerman's book "A Jewish Princedom in Feudal France 768-900" on the subject in 1972. Zuckerman in my opinion was mistaken on some genealogical matters and thus slightly confused the issue. His basic research however is good and very useful. However he has confused Theodoric with his son of the same name. His identification of Natronai with Theodoric is also incorrect. A study of the origins of the Jewish Mystical tradition also throws light on this whole question. That there is a connection between Narbonne, Germany (Bavaria), and Italy is clear from the sources of Kabbalah. A great figure in this is Rabbi Amorai the compiler of the Sefer Bahir. Who was Rabbi Amorai? The French Chansons speak of the figure of Aimeri (Aumery) de Narbonne and his brother Girart de Vienne and their families. Aimeri may be a Frankish variant of Amorai (Babylonian) or of Machir (Hebrew). This Aimeri has been also identified with Theodoric (variants Dietrich/ Rorik/ Thierry/ Theuderic) the Ruler of Autun, Narbonne and Septimania.


Confusion about Machir Todros ben Judah Zakkai arose over the Jewish statements that this Jewish Davidic Prince was made Ruler over the Jews of Southern France in the time of a King Charles. This was latter believed to be in the time of Charlemagne (Charles the Great) however the Jewish account was not referring to Charlemagne but to his grandfather Charles Martel. There were two seiges of Narbonne one in the 730's in the time of Charles Martel and another in the 750's in the reign of his son King Pepin. These two seiges have also been confused. The Jewish sources state that the father of this Jewish Davidic scion of the Royal House of David in Babylon was the Exilarch Judah.


The son of Ahunai of the Holy Land (aka Hernaut de Beauland) was Judah Zakkai (Eudes/Eudo). He was also known as Bera haNebi (Son of the Prophet). Judah (Eudes ) was educated in Babylonia and there he married around 710 Sussanah ha Geveret (Blanchfleur) the daughter of the Exilarch Hananiah ben David. In 711 the Muslims had invaded Spain from North Africa. Many Jews and the Arian Christians welcomed the invaders and served under the Muslim rulers. Habibi or Abu ha Nasi was one who was a member of the Babylonian Exilarch family. In 715 Eudes (Judah Zakkai) returned from Babylon and became the Ruler of Aquitaine. In 720 the Muslims took southern France in the area called Septimania with Narbonne as its capital. The Muslim Governor of Spain Al Samah in 721 was defeated at Toulouse by Eudes. In 731 Eudes made an alliance with the Narbonne Wala Othman son of Wala Abu (or Habibi/ Havivai) and Ruth of Aquitaine. Eudes married his daughter Lampagie to Othman. However Othman was then defeated by Abd de Rahman the Muslim Sultan. Eudes then allied himself with his former opponent Charles Martel by marrying his daughters Judith (Bertrude) and Geveret (Gerberge) to Charles' sons Pepin and Carloman. Eudes son Machir Todros married Charles daughter Alda (Aude/Aldana Adela).


In 732 Charles Martel and Eudes defeated Abd el Rahman at the Battle of Tours. They then laid seige to Narbonne which fell to the Franks in 739 with the help of the Jewish community loyal to the Exilarch family. Later the Muslims retook Narbonne and in the 750's King Pepin had to lay seige and take Narbonne for the second time. Aimeri de Narbonne (Machir Todros) became the new Jewish ruler of Narbonne and Septimania and his brother Gershom (Girart de Vienne / Gerald) of Vienne and through his marriage to Imma (Emma) he ruled territory in Germany. Machir and Gershom were great Torah scholars and the Jewish traditions have misplaced them in the 11th century when in fact they lived in the 8th century. Gershom was the famous Rabbenu Gershom who was considered the Western Gaon on a level with the great Gaons of the Babylonian Academies. Gershom married as his first wife Devorah the daughter of Rabbi Judah (he has been confused with Judah ben Meir the traveller of the 10th century). In about 730 Rabbi Judah went to Babylon to become the Gaon of Pumbedita- Gershom and Devorah accompanied him there. After that Gershom and Devorah moved to Constantinople where Gershom was a goldsmith and physician to the Emperor Leo III the Iconoclast. He assisted the sick in 732 during the plague in Constantinople. Gershom was the Davidic Jewish adviser who encouraged the Emperor Leo's iconoclast policy and organised the marriage of Leo's son Constantine to the Jewish Khazar princess Tzitack who was also the daughter of Gershom's sister Serakh who married the Khazar Khagan Bihar Sabriel son of the first Jewish Khazar Khagan Bulan. It would seem that John the enemy of Gershom in the legends of Gershom was St John of Damascus who opposed the Iconoclasm of the Emperor. Gershom returned to France where he married his second wife known as Imma and they settled in Germany.



Machir Todros was also known as Theodoric or Theuderic the Duke of Narbonne and Count of Autun. Eudes (Judah Zakkai) abdicated as King of Aquitaine in 735 and returned to Babylon where he was to succeed his father-in-law as the Babylonian Exilarch. Machir Todros ben Judah Zakkai and Aude (Alda/Alba) had four sons Menachem (Hernaut de Gironde/ Harald Hildetonn), Nehemiah ha Makiri (Aymer le Chetif/Theuderic of Ripaurien and Saxony/ Namon of Bavaria/ Naime/ Namus), Nathan Kalonymus (Guilluame de Gellone/William of Septimania) and the youngest Yakar (Guibelin/ Gui Alberic of Narbonne/ Bellon). Zuckerman confuses Nehemiah ha Makiri with his father Machir Todros as both were called Theuderic as their Frankish title and both were called variants of Aimeri or Aumeri in the Chansons. Guillame de Gellone (Nathan Kalonymus) is confused with his nephew of the same name William who was son of his brother Theuderic (Nehemiah ha Makiri). The stories of the two Williams are confused. The older William (Nathan Kalonymus) was born in the 730's and married Cunegunde (daughter of Carloman and Gerberge) and were the parents of Bernard Naso (Nasi Meshullam bar Natan/ Bernart de Brubant). The nephew William (Isaac Kalonymus)[born 755 died 814] married Guibor daughter of his uncle Guibelin (Gui Alberic/Gilbert) Count of Narbonne and his wife Rolande of Hesbaye. Machir's red haired son Hernaut de Gironde (Menachem/Herraud/Harald) married Hilda daughter of Ivar Wide Fathom Ha Alef Dan (Ruler of Denmark/ King of Lethra).


William I(Nathan Kalonymus) of Gellone and Toulouse was King of Septimania from 775-793 AD. He fought many battles against the Muslims and was killed in the battle of Cacasonne in 793. He was succeeded as Jewish King of Septimania and Count of Toulouse (from 793-806) by his nephew William II (Isaac Kalonymus de Barzelay)of Gellone who later embraced Catholicism and was known as St William of Gellone. He was also called William Ferrebrachia (Barzelay).


The second William of Gellone (Isaac Kalonymus) who married Guibour (Witberga) had a son Warin (Aaron) of Autun (b.779) who became the Count of Macon. Warin married his cousin Ava (Albana) the daughter of Hugh of Tours and his wife Ava (Albana) of Autun and Ripaurien. Ava or Albana of Autun and Ripaurien was the sister of William of Gellone II (Isaac Kalonymus), Theuderic or Thierry Count of Autun (who married Blichilde/Richilde of Narbonne) and Werner (Warin/Garin/Garnier/Aaron) of Saxony. Warin of Macon and Ava of Tours were the parents of Isembart Count of Macon, Machir Bernard of Auvergne and Ermengarde who married Bernard Hairyfoot of Septimania (or Gothia).


Bernard the Hairyfoot (Nasi Meshullam II) was the son of Bernard Vital (Vitellus). Bernard Vital was also called Nasi Ithiel Hayyim. Hayyim and Vital or Vidal means life. Many genealogies confuse the different Bernards.


Guillaume de Gellone (Isaac Kalonymus) also had a son-in-law called Gauzelin (Gosselin /Gauzhelm) who married Aldeltrude (Herriasbeuck/Herminbue) and they were the parents of Rorick of Maine(also known of Rorgon of Les Baux). Bernard Vital was also known as Ithier (Itherius) Count of Auvergne based on his Jewish name of Ithiel.The Mercoeur (Makhiri) Estate at Auvergne was a centre for the Jewish Exilarch family.


The second Guillaume (William) de Gellone [Isaac Kalonymus] b. 755 d.814 was the father of Gerard (Gershom) of Auvergne the brother of Warin (Aaron) of Macon. Gerard was the father of Ramnulf (Ranalf) I Duke of Aquitiaine. This second William of Gellone was the Catholic saint whereas the other William of Gellone his uncle was the Jewish leader and Nasi of Septimanian Jewry. St William of Gellone's descendants were mainly Hebrew Catholics who intermarried with their relatives including members of the observant Jewish branch. St William of Gellone married his Jewish cousin Guibor (also called Orable) the daughter of his Jewish uncle Guibelin of Narbonne and his wife Rolande of Hesbaye. Guibor became a Catholic with her husband later in life. Their son Judah remained an observant Jew and returned to Babylon where his son David became the Babylonian Exilarch.


William of Gellone II's son Gerard of Auvergne married the Princess Hildegarde daughter of the Emperor Lewis the Pious and his Jewish wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye and Narbonne. Ermengarde was the daughter of Guibelin of Narbonne and his wife Rolande of Hesbaye. Guibor (Orable) and Ermengarde were sisters. Duke Ramnulf I of Poiters and Aquitaine was a Hebrew Catholic who married his cousin Blichilde of Maine. Their son Ramnulf II married his unbaptised Jewish cousin Adelinde of Septimania the daughter of the Jewish Nasi Meshullam II (aka Bernard the Hairyfoot).


Ramnulf II of Poiters and Aquitaine married his Jewish relative Adelinde (or Nesiya) and their son was called Eblaus (Ebles) Manzer or Mamzer (i.e the Hebrew Bastard) as the son of a Catholic father (of Jewish ancestry however) and a Jewish mother. There was an anti-Jewish element aomong the Christians which parodied the names of these Aristocratic Jews of the House of King David. They took the names such as Nasi Bernard and called him Bernard Naso or Bernard the Nose and William of Gellone I was called the Hooked Nose and Bernard Plantavellue became Plantapilosa or Hairyfoot alluding to the Devil. Hernaut de Gironde (Harald of Hiletonn) became King Herod. Bernard Vidal became Bernard the Calf referring to the sin of the Jews with the Golden Calf. This antisemitic Gnostic influence on the common Christians was entering France at this time from the East. Under the earlier Carolingians, Christians and Jews worked together against the forces of Islam but as the Middle Ages progressed the Gnostic forces grew stronger so that the aristocratic and royal families of Jewish origin had to cover up their Jewish ancestry and keep any Jewish customs secret. It was rumoured right throughout the Middle ages that these families were secretly keeping Jewish rites in the families and some writers sought to demonstrate the Jewish ancestors of the aristocratic families.



Lady Rolande of Hesbaye married Yakar bar Machir Todros. Rolande was a cousin of her husband Yakar Guibelin as Rolande's mother was Landree or Landrade (Wandrade) daughter of Charles Martel and Ruth (Rutrud/ Schwanhilde). Landrade was the sister of Aude (Alda) the wife of Machir Todros. Landrade married firstly Hunold of Aquitaine. Hunold was Machir's brother. He was also called Henoch and Ahunai or Huna and also Hernaut after his grandfather. His son by Landrade was Waifre (Loup/ Welf/ Wolf) of Aquitaine and Gascony. His name came from the title Ha Alelph or Welf for a Davidic Prince. Landrade married secondly after Hunold of Aquitaine's death to Sigrand (Ingram/Angar/ Ingijald/ Sigtryggur) of Hesbaye {he is also Simeon or Semen or Siguin] and her daughters were Rolande and Erica (Eirikur). Erica married Ivar Vidfami King of Lethra and they were the parents of Hilda who married Menachem (Hernaut de Gironde/ Harald/ Herraud) son of Machir. A title used by Machir and his brothers was Ha Adon (the Lord) which became Hatton, Atton and Autun. Sigrand and Landrade had a son called Randver(Angar/ Agnar/ Berenger) who was the father of Sigurd Ring King of Lethra who maried Alfhild daughter of his cousin Hilda and her husband Hernaut (Menachem).



Sussannah the mother of Machir is called Blanchefleur or the White Flower or Rose. In Hebrew the name is Shoshanah (White Rose or Lily) and in Ladino it is Roza. She was a descendant of the Blanchfleur that went to Babylon in the legends of the Grail. Sussanah was called Roza and Rozalinde. Linde means pretty in Spanish. She was the Pretty Rose. Shoshanah ha Yafa was the daughter of Hananiah ben David the Babylonian Exilarch. She was the maternal grandmother of Charlemagne whose Jewish name was David Kalonymus.

The Carolingian Dynasty were the direct descends of the House of David of the tribe of Judah on their male lineage. The Merovingian Kings were direct descendants of the Tribe of Dan through their ancestress' rape by the Prince of Dan (also called the Beast of Poseidan/ Neptune). Queen Argotta was raped by Dan the Sea King and her son Clodion the Hairy was adopted and brought up by Pharamond (Faramund) who was a Davidic descendant of St Joseph of Arimathea. It was Clodion who brought the custom of Long hair in to the Frankish Kingdom as descendants of Samson of the Tribe of Dan. Like Samson their long hair was invested with mystic power. Clodius was also called Merovee I (from the Sea). From him the dynasty took its name of Merovingian. It was believed that a Danite descendant of the Merovingians would claim Davidic descent and be an antichrist figure opposed by a true Great Davidic King descended from Constantine, Arthur and Charlemagne from among the lands of Joseph and Ephraim (the Lost Tribes in the Western Refuge or Exile of Zarephath). This promised Davidic Great Monarch would be a Enoch or Henoch like figure and he would bare a variant of the name Henoch which became Hunroch, Hunald, Hernaut Heinrich, Henrique, Henri and Henry in the different European languages. This King would be assisted by an old Josephite High Priest of Annu or On (the Pope) who would be an Elijah type Aaronite Priest from the Frankish Empire.



The Mandaen Gnostics that entered Europe in the late Merovingian and early Carolingian times branded the Jewish Exilarchs in the Frankish Empire as Sons of the Devil and Antichrists. They associated Aron ha Aleph or Arnold with the Persian antichrist figure of Ahriman and and Henoch ha Nabi with the Mandaen antichrist Nebu Misiha who the Jews called the Leper or Afflicted Messiah son of Joseph. Haymon or Ithiel Hayyim I of the Davidic Exilarch family were closely allied with the Jewish Christian Bishops descended from Galahad. They brought with them the Grail platter from its Grail Castle in Persia in the city of Takte Solomon by a beautiful Lake which was the city of Sarras in the Grail legends. In the past I had thought that the House of Hesbaye was of Levitical and Aaronite descent but further research demonstrates that they are of Davidic descent from Galahad the Grail Priest-King of Sarras. They were also known as the Priest Kings of Arak (in Persia). The name En (An or On) in Sumerian means a Priest-King. Omer ha Ari's brother was known as Aron as well as the En or Priest King of Arak (from which comes the Frankish name of Archenauld/ Erchenaud). These Davidic Jewish Christian Fisher or Priest Kings continued their role of guarding the Grail and practicing Eucharistic Adoration for many generations. They became known as the Hesbaye family in the Frankish Empire. Levi (Leuthanus) the son of Aron shel Arak (Arimandus) married Geberge (Geveret) the daughter of Aumeric (Omer ha Nasi). Levi or Leuthanus was the brother of St Arnulf. This family was able to claim a mystique equal or even greater than that of the Danite Long Haired Merovingian Kings.



Galahad (Gilead) was the son of Lancelot or Ancelos/ Anguselus. Anseghisel or Angelisel is a variant of Lancelot's name. He was a Scottish Prince of the Scottish Exilarch family who became Kings of the Scots and the High Kings of Britain. Lancelot (The Angus) was the son of Angus (also called Anlach of Ireland or Bennic) and his wife Marchell daughter of King Muredach of Ireland. Angus or Anlach was the son of Nathan Todros (Theodoric) of the Gewisse. Lancelot also known as Brychan was fostered by Drust (Tristan). Lancelot as Brynach  became the Patriarch of a Davidic Jewish Christian family of saints and kings. His original Davidic Jewish origin is preserved in the account of his life which begins: "The Lord chose for himself from the sons of Israel a man according to his heart, Brynach by name, adorned with pleasing manners, and excelling in tokens and signs of virtues, seeing that he vowed a vow to the God of Jacob, which he observed unblamably even to the last. From his mother's breasts, therefore, embracing the name of his God, and not neglecting his commandments, he chose rather to be of no account in his house than to dwell more luxuriously in the palaces of princes. Tracing his descent from an illustrious stock of progenitors, and obtaining no little merit of laudable fame, much enriched too with wealth, with which the minds of worldlings are wont to be allured, also endowed with broad patrimonies, he would not be captivated by the solace of ancestry or the extension of fame or the delights of riches or be restrained by the rights of hereditary estates...." 


When the Grail family first came to the Pesian Empire via Armenia they settled in the mountains of Takte Solomon named for their ancestor Solomon II Babyonian Exilarch the grandfather of Joseph of Arimathea. Cunomor married Ava (or Abiane) a daughter of Mar Zutra II the King of the Jewish State of Mahoza and Babylonian Exilarch. Cunomor (Huna Mar) and his son Kafnai reestablished the Babylonian Exilarch later on. Cunomor's son Arthur was sent back to Britian for fostering in secret. Lancelot was to leave his beautiful Lake at Takte Solomon and journey to Britain to the Kingdom of Britian where he joined up with his relative King Arthur of the Gewisse (Jews) who was also known as King Arthur map Mar of the Pennines who had regained his family's British Kingdom. The term Guletic for the King of the Britons comes from the title Resh Guluta (Head of the Exile). Arthur was also known as the son of Uther Pen Dragon (Pedr). This Uther was Elutherius or Elidyr his father-in-law the Head Dragon. Galahad would return with the Holy Grail to Persia and it would make its way West again at a later date. Galahad's mother Elaine was the sister of Perceval (Peredur) who married Blanchfleur the daughter of Dindraine Blanchfleur and Vahan the Wolf of Armenia. Vahan the Wolf is Kayl Vahan. From this name of Kayl (Wolf) would come variants such as Karl, Kalonymus, Carloman, Kalman. Kalman originally meant the Wolf Man. Jewish ears preferred to transform Kayl or Kaylman in to Kalonymus which meant "Good name" when the term Wolf began to have a negative connatation. Wolf in German became Welf and was associated with the term Ha Aleph for a Ruler by the Jews. A second Vahan the Wolf would rise up to deliver Armenia in the time of Chrosroes II.



The son of Vahan the Wolf I and Dindraine Blanchfleur was Drust or Tristan who was the nephew of Cunomor. Vahan the Wolf was a descendant of the Maccabees and of King Herod the Great through the Patriarchs of Armenia. Drust or Tristan married Ysai or Esa (Isuelt) whose daughter Ava (Abba/Eobba) married Ida (Ithiel Hayyim) son of  Mar Amorai of Babylon. Mar Amorai's son Ithiel Hayyim was also called Itha or Ida and he and his son Adalric (Eticho) became the Rulers of a Saxon Tribe from Germany and went with them to Bernicia. Ithiel was known as Ida in Bernicia and Adalric as Ethelric King of Bernicia. His grandson was Aedlfrid or Ethelfrid King of Bernicia. Aumeric (Ricaumer) the Davidic Nasi of  the Frankish Empire was a grandson of Arimandus.  The earlier Aumeric or Eormenric.became the King of Kent and is the same as Mar Amorai the son of King Arthur Mor.  The genealogies and histories have become confused by later writers especially trying to link the Carolingian families to the old Merovingian Dynasty and nobility. The new Davidic rulers in becoming the rulers of areas formerly linked with the Merovingians took the names and titles associated with those of their predecessors.




King Arthur married Ceindrech the daughter of Eliydr (Elutherius/Uther Pendragon)and his sons were Amorai (Meirchion/Amr/Amwlad) and Noah (Nowy Hen). Amorai was the father of Ygraine who married King Aedan of Dal Riata and they were the parents of Arthur of Dal Riata. Noah was the father of Elidyr(Eliud). Elidyr's son was Beli who married the daughter of King Rhun of Gwynedd. Beli's son was King Iago of Gwynedd. The Welsh genealogies have been rather muddled and are in need of a certain reconstruction.


see The Bonet-Kalonymus-Shemtov