Sunday, August 30, 2015

McDonells of Keppoch: Reconstructed Tree

 Click on the tree for a clearer and bigger view

This tree is a reconstruction of the MacDonald / McDonell family tree focusing on the Keppoch branch of the family. Many genealogical trees trace the Lords of Keppoch from Alexander a brother of Donald II Lord of the Isles (r.1387-1423) rather than his son Alexander IV Lord of the Isles (r. 1440-1449) and Earl of Ross (1423-1449) who was also listed as the first Lord of Keppoch in the genealogies. Alexander and his uncle Alexander have been confused and they both were Lord of the Isles during the same period. Donald's brother Alexander of Lochaber succeeded him as Lord of the Isles and Alexander IV became the Earl of Ross and then in 1440 on the death of his uncle Alexander III he became the Lord of the Isles as well.

The male line of Hugh McDonald of Sleat is R1a ydna whereas the male line of Donald II of the Isles is R1b M222+. Alexander IV Lord of the Isles was the first husband of Hugh of Sleat's mother Elizabeth (nee Seton) the widowed Lady of the Isles (b.1416 d.1479) who married his father Alexander 4th Lord of Glengarry of Clan Ruari (d.1460) soon after her first husband's death. Hugh of Sleat was born in 1452 and died around 1498. Hugh's maternal half brothers were John III 12th Lord of the Isles (b.1434 r1449-1480) and Angus McDonell 2nd Lord of Keppoch. He also had full brother John Ranaldson MacDonald (b.1450 d.1501) 5th Lord of Glengarry of the Ruari Clan. 

Many of the histories of this family were not written until the 17th century a couple of hundred years after many of the events so certain information was inaccurate or partially correct.  The history and genealogies of these families are in need of reconstruction in certain aspects. Using the genealogies, historical research, legends and dna evidence can aid in this reconstruction.

Sunday, August 23, 2015

R1b M222+ Tree and Scotland


The latest thinking among many of those studying the R1b M222+ ydna is pointing to a strong connection of much of this group with Scotland. Iain Kennedy's Tree is further confirmation of this Scottish origin. Allan Milliken's research also points in the direction as does the Sons of Aodh family project. How then does this fit with the idea that M222 is connected to High King Niall of the Nine Hostages?

  Sir Iain Moncrieffe a leading genealogist and heraldist in the days before ydna research demonstrated the the Scottish Royal House of Dunkeld-Atholl was descended from the O'Niall Kings of the Mide (Meath) in Ireland. My own genealogy research which I have been doing for over 30 years confirms this Mide origin of the Dunkeld-Atholl Kings of Scotland. Thus accepting that the House of Dunkeld -Atholl in Scotland is R1b M222+ explains this prevalence of M222 in Scotland.

If we place the father of King Duncan I of Scots- Crinan the Abbot of Dunkeld- at the head of Iain Kennedy's tree chart it becomes very clear that direct male line Kennedy family are descendants of King Duncan's brother Maldred the Lord or King of Cumbria. Crinan and his son King Duncan I of Scots lived in the 11th century.

It then becomes clear comparing genealogies of the Dunkeld-Athol dynasty and the ydna members of M222+ projects that three of the sons of King Duncan (S7073/ FGC462) are the ancestors of the subclades of  S568+ (Mael Maire the Mormaer of Atholl), S658+ ( King Malcolm III and FCG4077 (King Donald III). This then means that King Malcom III's son King David I of Scots is the ancestor of the subclade of  DF104 (s661).

When one studies the Scottish noble genealogies the mysterious figure of Isaac and his son Gillanders or Gilleion appear in the 13th century. However Gilleion may be another name for Isaac who is also known as John or Iain. His father is Gillanders (aka Prince Alexander) and his son is Gillanders as well (Alexander Lord of the Isles). He is also called the son of Raa, Rath or Rae a diminuitive of Rebecca, Rae-bethag, Rifka or Rivka. Rae can also mean "little deer" in Gaelic and the deer (hind) is the feminine personification of Israel (Kneset Yisrael). Isaac is thus the one who genetically links the Dunkeld-Atholl dynasty to the clans of Mackenzie, Maclean, Macrae, Gillanders and others and the Alexander and MacDonalds of R1b. The M222+ DF105 subclade S588 are descended from Donald, Lord of the Isles (r.1387-1423).

Isaac was also known as Macrath Molegan (Amuligane) meaning "the Little Jewish King who is the son of Rebecca". Molegan (ha Melekh katan) deriving from the Hebrew "Melekh" (king) and "katan" (little) and possibly alluding to the Gaelic for little King "Regan". In Gaelic there is no letter "k" so a "g" is used. It is also interesting to note that both the Macrae and MacDonald clans recognise MacRaith as a clan sept. Isaac (aka John Alexander) married Lady Margaret Bruce (b.1283) a daughter of his mother's close friend and ally Robert Bruce, the 6th Lord of Annandale around 1298.

This Jewish connection to Scotland has been hidden but is easily reconstructed by a study of the numerous genealogies in which the Jews - Isaac and Rebecca - play an important part. Sir Walter Scott's Isaac and Rebecca in Ivanhoe draw on the legends of them told by his mother. The females of Rebecca's family saw themselves as like Queen Esther of Persia in remaining as hidden Jewesses in the royal and noble families.

see

Royal House of Dunkeld-Atholl (R1b M222+) and the Khazars (R1a)

see

New Subclades of R1b M222+ ydna: The Scottish Sons of Isaac (DF104)

Wednesday, August 19, 2015

Where was Mt Sinai? Jabal Nabi Shuayb?

 Jabal Nabi Shuayb with snow on it

There have been a number of locations for Mt Sinai or Horeb. The location of Mt Sinai in the modern Sinai peninsula has been questioned by many who believe it was in Arabia. Josephus states that it was the highest mountain in Arabia.  St Paul talks about a Mt Sinai in Arabia. As the Israelites wandered around the Wilderness for 40 years it is more likely that they wandered around Arabia which was the location of Midian. Arabia included Yemen and Oman. 

The view from Jabal Sawda or Jabal Al-Soudah which is often covered with black clouds

The highest mountain in modern day Saudi Arabia is Jabal Sawda (Jabal Al-Soudah) in the south. Some claim that Mt Sinai was the highest mountain in northern Arabia Jabal Al Lawz. However the highest mountain in ancient Arabia was Jabal Nabi Shuayb in Yemen and another possibility is Jabal Tiyal which is nearby. 



It is possible that the Israelites crossed the Red Sea at the Straits of Tiran and then turned south towards Jabal Sawda ( and Jabal Nabi Shuayb and Jabal Tiyal) rather than north towards Jabal al-Lawz. Muslim tradition places the Midianites in the region of Jabal Nabi Shuayb. The tradition states that these Midianites were east of Mt Sinai to whom the prophet Shuayb was sent. Thus the mountain today called Jabal Nabi Shuayb may have been the original Mt Sinai. 

Was Jabal Sawda the mountain of Rephidim on which Moses stood when the Amalekites attacked the Israelites? Velikovsky identified the Land of the Amalekites with the Hejaz area (Mecca) of Arabia which is north of Jabal Sawda which was in the border area of Amalek and Midian territories. At the time of the Destruction of the Exodus the Amu or Amalekites fled from Aram-Tehama (Mauritia) and the lands of the Indian Ocean to their colonies in Saudi Arabia to the Hejaz area and they eventually entered Egypt as the Amu or Hyksos. 

Arabia had once been a fertile land which was destroyed during the time of the Exodus especially in the east- the western side was less damaged where the Amalekites settled and clashed with the Israelites. They had originated in ancient Australia.

 One theory of the Exodus Route

Thursday, July 30, 2015

Dolerite Tombs of Noah and Shem in Tasmania? Pangaea and Gondwana

Adamson's Peak, from Dover Tasmania

In some of my past posts I mentioned that I believed that Tasmania was the location of the ancient Tower and City of Babel and a centre of the ancient world and that Ararat was at Mt Cook in New Zealand. This was before the breakup and formation of the continents over 4,000 years ago. Part of the great Sin or Sinar (Shinar/ Sinim) plain was to become the plateau that covers most of Australia (known as the Western Plateau or Australian Shield) and the other eastern part went under the water in the area we today call the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean surrounding Tasmania. 

There were huge man-made causeways with huge man-made water canals leading to Babel (Lebab) across the ancient plain of Sinar leading to Mt Lubar and Mt Lebab. Lebab means Heart and Babel is the reversal of the word. The books of Enoch and Jubilees refer to Mt Lubar as the mountain that the Ark landed on, so Lebab and Lubar may be two different mountains that became confused in later accounts. If not then the three cities of Sadek (in Gondwanian Tasmania or Australia), Nahal (in Gondwanian South America/ South Africa) and Adan (in Gondwanian Antarctica) may have been to the east (Shemites), south (Hamites) and west (Japhethites) of Mt Cook (Aoraki) rather than Tasmania (Lebab). However we cannot be sure of the geography of this time as the continents had not broken apart yet. The story of Noah's Ark being in New Zealand is confirmed in the Maori legends of Aoraki's Canoe.

One Evolutionary based map of the socalled super continent of Godwanaland

The Book of Jubilees refers to the making of the stone-like bricks for the Tower and City: "...For they departed from the land of Ararat eastward to Shinar; for in his days they built the city and the tower, saying, 'Go to, let us ascend thereby into heaven.' And they began to build, and in the fourth week they made brick with fire, and the bricks served them for stone, and the clay with which they cemented them together was asphalt which comes out of the sea, and out of the fountains of water in the land of Shinar...". This is the so-called dolerite rock that evolutionary science associates with a kind of volcanic rock but is in fact man-made in a process and with a technology that is now unknown. The dolerite rock that covers much of Tasmania is the remnants of the great City and Tower of Lebab. At this time Tasmania (site of Sadek and Lebab), Zealandia (site of Mt Lubar) and Victoria Land in Antarctica (site of Adan) were close together and had great cities and Towers made of Dolerite bricks. Nahal was to the south west of Mt Lubar when parts of Godwanian southern Brazil and Namibia were close together and to the Godwanian southern tip of Zealandia (now under the Sea south of Maquarie Island). The process for producing these dolerite bricks may have been part of what led to the splitting of the continents. 


One idea of the original continent of Pangaea

Many translations say that one travelled eastward from Ararat to Shinar whereas it could possibly also read that the Land of Ararat was to the east of the great plain of Shinar (Sinim). If Shinar or Sinar was in Iraq then these directions make no sense as the Ararat in Turkey/Armenia is directly north of Iraq. The Armenian Land of Urartu at some stage of history and legend became associated with Ararat. However if Pangaea or Gondwana were the shape of the earth in the time when Noah landed on Mt Cook then one indeed would go eastward to the great plain of Shinar as New Zealand (Zealandia) was at this time to the West of Australia and Tasmania rather than the east as it was after the breaking up of the continents. Was Pangaea the pre-flood land and Gondwanda the post-deluge shape? Or is there a better scenario? It would seem that before the destruction at the time of Babel that mankind (Japhethites) had also settled in the areas that were to become North America and the British Isles (the western coastlands of Laurasia) where Dolerite is also found today.


 Tasman Sea Floor off New Zealand
 I also think that the original Yeshivah or Academy of Noah and Shem may have been in a valley south of Hobart and that the Tomb of Noah (or Shem) is the pyramid shaped mountain of Adamson's Peak in Tasmania and that the smaller pyramid shaped mounds near Adamson's peak are the tombs of his son Shem and possibly that of Noah or Shem's wife known as the Cow and the Calf. It is also possible that the Adamson's Peak area are the tombs of Shem and his family and that Noah and his wife are buried near the original Mt Lubar or Ararat in New Zealand.

Abraham was to spend some time as a child and later as an adult at this Academy of Noah and Shem (see the Book of Jasher) in Tasmania. A second Academy of Shem and Eber was established in Canaan at Shalem run by Melchizedek who had taught Abraham in the Academy of Noah and Shem previously. Isaac may have also gone to the south-eastern Academy of Noah and Shem after the events of the Akedah (Binding) for three years. 

At this stage of research I would posit that something similar to the modern scientists' Pangaea was the one landmass before the Flood and that Gondawana and Laurasia of the modern scientists was similar to the geography of the earth after the Deluge. However the southern parts of South America and South Africa may have been further south and east of the map used above. The present shape of the world's geography dates from 1530 AD and 1606 AD when numerous lands sunk under the Indian and Pacific Oceans, however the present locations of the continents date from the time after the Destruction of Babel just over 4,000 years ago. A true map or model of Pangaea and Gondwana would need to take into account the ancient lands that have now sunken under the Sea and the ancient coastlines that are now also under water and many other factors. Unlike the theories of evolutionary scientists I hold that the splitting of the continents was a rapid process causing by man-made cataclysmic events not one that took millions of years through uniformitarian and evolutionary processes. Even some evolutionary scientists believe that the splitting apart of the continents was not gradual but occurred in one huge cataclysmic event such as Paul Renne (a Professor at Berkeley University) and his researchers (in "Science" magazine April 23 1999).

Pangaea (and Gondwana) was most likely originally a circular landmass with a circular large sea or Lake in its interior. It looked  like a wheel or a dinner plate. After the Flood, Gondwana was a more fragmented version of the circular Pangaea from before the Flood. At the time of the cataclysmic events of Babel, Antarctica was pulled south between Kergeulen and Zealandia, pushing Kergeulen to the West and Zealandia to the East. As Kergeulen moved west so South America, Mauritia and Africa moved west. As Zealandia moved East so the southern part of Australia pulled Australia around into its present position. These movements created the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. 

Before the Flood the Interior Sea was a huge mountain on which the Garden of Eden was located surrounded by the fifth or head River of Eden from which the four major Rivers flowed into the rest of Eden (the rest of the Land).  The Nile and the Amazon rivers were once part of the same primordial River that flowed through Godwanian Africa and South America coming out to the Ocean near the great Hamite city of Nahal.  This primordial River was called the Gihon. The Pishon River has remnants in the modern day Ganges River in India, and the Fitzroy and Murray Rivers in Australia. The Chidekel flowed to the east and the Euphrates and Yangtze are remnants of this river. The Parat flowed to the West and its remnants are the Danube, the Rhine and the Thames.

When the asteroid at the time of the flood struck the earth in the Ocean the circular mountain of Eden was pushed forth and collided with the Moon of that time which became the planet Mercury in a new location while the Garden of Eden mountain became the present moon. The circular hole left with the removal of the mountain became the Interior Sea after the flood and after the Tower of Babel parts of the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea are remnants of this ancient Interior Sea which had been pulled to the north-east during the cataclysmic events. The Events of the Flood caused cracks in the "dinner plate" and the events of Babel caused the "dinner plate" to be broken and pulled apart forming the continents. It must always be remembered that the Ocean of earth before the Flood was a lot smaller and after the Flood the earth contained much more water probably from the Ocean of Mars. Scientists now believe that at least 20 percent of Mars was once covered with water.



see

Sinus Magnus and Catigara of Ptolemy in Australasia

An alternative Gondwana: Biota links South America, New Zealand and Australia 

(This paper places Australia and Antarctica to the West of South America rather than to the east of Africa. This is another possible scenario but not the only one. )

Tuesday, July 21, 2015

Haplogroups of the Tribes of Israel: What Tribe do You belong to?

 
The following haplogroups of the Tribes of Israel do not mean that they are the only haplogroups for that tribe but that the haplogroups mentioned do belong to that Tribe in the direct male line. The Tribes of Israel belong to the overarching haplogroup called NOP. All those with haplogroups descended from NOP are male lineal ydna descendants of Jacob the Patriarch of Israel. Jacob's male descendants by the full-sisters Rachel and Leah belong to R and Q. The Israelite clans descended from Jacob's six sons by Leah are all found mainly under the R1b haplotype (descended from P), the clans of the two sons of Joseph (a son of Jacob's wife Rachel) Ephraim and Manasseh belong to R1a, those of Q belong to the clans of the tribe of Benjamin. NO is the group belonging to Jacob's four sons Dan, Naphtali, Gad and Asher by his two concubines who according to tradition were half sisters of Rachel and Leah by their father Laban's Asiatic concubine. 

The so-called R1b Ht-15 belongs the Israelites from the Lost Tribes of the Assyrian Exile (called in Jewish tradition the exile of Zarephath). The so-called R1b ht-35 are the descendants of the Judeans of the Babylonian Exile (called in Jewish tradition as the exile of Sephard) mainly belonging to the Tribes of Judah, Levi and some of Benjamin. Q Benjaminites are mainly those Benjaminites descended from the Benjaminite Kingdom in Siberia.(see Hebrew y-dna: A New Understanding)

1. Reuben: R1b U152 and may also be found among branches of R1b P312.

2. Simeon: R1b DF27 and may also be found among branches of R1b P312.

3. Levi: Levite clans are found among both R1b Ht-15 and R1b Ht-35 as well as R1b-V88. 

4. Judah: Clans of Judah are to be found among R1b Ht-15 and R1b Ht-35 including R1b L21 (Davidic House of Nathan).

5. Dan: Clans of Dan are to be found among N, N* and P*.

6. Naphtali: the clans of Naphtali are of N ydna.

7. Gad: the clans of Gad belong to O1 and O3.

8. Asher: the clans of Asher belong to O2 ydna.

9. Issachar: R1b DF19 and may also be found among branches of R1b P312.

10. Zebulon: R1b U106 and may also be found among branches of R1b P312.

11. Ephraim: R1a Z283 and other branches of R1 and R1a .

12. Benjamin: the clans of Benjamin are Q ydna and also found among R1b.

13. Manasseh: the clans of Manasseh are R1a Z93 and among other branches of R1 and R1a.

Friday, June 26, 2015

The Ephraimite Parthians and R1a y-dna Slavs


Today I came across an article about the Parthians being descendants of the Israelite Tribe of Ephraim by Steve Collins. This confirms my own studies using dna evidence and history to discover the descendants of the Tribes of Israel. In others articles, I have written that the secret capital city of the Parthian Empire was Parthia for which the Empire took its name. The Parthians were descended from the Royal House of the Perso-Median Empire from the Erani (Aryan) clan of Ephraim of R1a y-dna. The Parthian language was a variant of Aramaic spoken by the Northern Kingdom of Israel.

The R1a descendants of Ephraim and some of Eastern Manasseh (R1a Z93 y-dna) with the fall of the Assyrian Empire made their way into the far south to the Third India (Australia). The Warrior horsemen of Manesseh had gone with the last Israelite King of Samaria with some of the Tribes of Western Gad (O M122 y-dna) and Asher (O2 ydna) into the Western Region of China while the bulk of Eastern Manasseh (R1a Z93 y-dna) went with Reuben (R1b U152 y-dna) and Eastern Gad (O M119 y-dna)  into the southern continent across the straits of Sabbaton (Sabah) into Northern and Central Australia on the edge of the shallow Inland Sea (Yam Rhodud). 

In fact Manasseh settled in the lands that border south east Asia and Australia known as Mani, Mancy or Manxi. The Ephraimites established their secret capital city of Parthia (Barthia/ Barburi/ Beredi) at Ophir at the ancient mouth of the ancient Eridanus or Cygnus (Swan) River at the Great Canyon (Perth or Swan Canyon) which is now under the Indian Ocean west of modern day Perth in Western Australia. From here they established a huge Parthian Empire stretching back into Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran to the north as well as the now sunken lands of the southern Indian Ocean and were to challenge the might of the Roman Empire. Ophir before 600 BC had been a city of the Israelite-Egyptian-Phoenician colony in ancient Western Australia. The Parthian Empire was established by an Ophiri or Parthian Prince Arsaces (Ashkan) around 250 BC. 


Eventually the bulk of the Ephraimite Parthians moved to Afghanistan/ Western Pakistan (Paradan, Parata or Indo-Parthian Kingdom) after their defeat by the Romans in 117 AD and then into northern Europe as the Wends or Vanir (Vononi/ Voni) around the 4th century AD and were the forefathers of the later Slavic peoples belonging to R1a y-dna. The name Voni came from the Royal House of Vonones. Bagareva or Barburraja the founder of the Parata (Paradan) Kingdom was a grandson of King Vonones II of Parthia.They were known as the Slovene or Slo-voni (people of Voni or Vonones) from which the name Slav is derived.

Today the Ephraimite Great Nation and Commonwealth or Company of nations are Russia and the other Slavic nations and peoples belonging to R1a Z283 y-dna. The British and Irish peoples are not Ephraim as once proposed by British Israelite writers but they are mainly the Royal Isles of the Davidic House of Nathan (R1b L21) who once lived south of Parthia (later called Berabia by the Romans) in Western Australia in the land of Kedar (south -west Western Australia and the Naturaliste Plateau) with its great sea port of Yafa or Joppa (meaning beautiful in Hebrew). By the time of the Parthian Empire the Gaelic population of Kedar (R1b L21) had mostly moved out of Kedar which then was under Parthian rule. 

Isaiah 11:13 speaks of the traditional envy of Ephraim (the Slavic peoples) with the Jews which will one day in the future be healed and then Ephraim (Russia) and Judah (the Jews) will ally against their enemies in the Middle East. However before this Russia and the Slavic nations will need to be purified of the militaristic anti-Semitic Assyrian influences and embrace the agenda of the coming Great Catholic Monarch who will most likely be a Davidic descendant of the Czars of Russia as well as the French, Spanish, Danish, Greek, German and British Kings. 

Note: The old Irish prophecies speak of this Monarch as Ruadh (Red haired) and a son of the King of Saxon. The King of Saxon is referring to a future English King. These prophecies of a future Great Monarch or Emperor coming from Britain to rule Europe and the World were associated with the names of Charles and Henry were popular in 16th and 17th century Scotland, France, Spain and England which led to their use by the Stuart Royal Family. This Monarch would not be French but descended from the French Kings such as Charlemagne and St Louis IX as well as from an old Germanic family (the Oldenburgs). James I named his eldest son Henry (future Prince of Wales) and his second son Charles (the future Charles I). Charles I also named two sons Charles (the future Charles II) and Henry. James III the Stuart King in Exile also named two sons Charles (of Bonnie Prince Charlie fame) and Henry (the future Cardinal York). Many held great hopes in the 17th century for Bonnie Prince Charlie or his brother Prince Henry Duke of York who were British Princes and also descended from the French Kings through their mother Queen Henrietta Maria a former French Princess and their grandmother Queen Anne a former Danish Princess descended from the House of Oldenburg. However this was not the prophesied time. This Monarch would also be associated with Ephraim (Russia and the Slavic nations) and with Greece as a new Constantine the Great. Like Constantine the Great he would be born in Britain.

see Hebrew y-dna: A New Understanding

Sunday, June 14, 2015

Rumpelstiltskin and Louis XVII

 Prince William of Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim

Most of us are familiar with the childhood fairytale of Rumpelstiltskin about the beautiful miller's daughter with blonde hair whose father boasted that she was so talented that she could turn straw into gold. The King hears of this and threatens to cut off her head if she doesn't do so. Rumpelstiltskin then promises to help if she will give him her first born son. The Grimms Brothers collected four versions of this story in the German principality of Hesse which they published in 1812. However was this story hiding the secret identity of the lost King Louis XVII who was rumoured to have escaped from the prison around 1794?
Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim the original Rumpelstiltskin

Did the royal House of Oldenburg and their close relatives in the House of Hesse and the British Royal family organise the rescue of the real Louis XVII? Was Baron Gerning a close associate with the House of Hesse responsible for the rescue and replacing Louis with another boy? We know that Baron Gerning was in France in 1792 and witnessed the execution of King Louis XVI. Did the switch happen then or latter in 1794? 
King Louis XVII

Rumpelstiltskin refers cryptically to the House of Hesse-Kassel -Rumpenstein and the beautiful blonde with Queen Marie Antoinette and her son with Louis XVII. Many in recent years believe that the heart tested as that of Louis was not his heart but of his brother Dauphin Louis -Joseph who died as a boy in 1789 (whose heart wasn't embalmed due to the outbreak of the Revolution). Catholic mystics have always stated that Louis did escape and that the future Great Monarch of Catholic prophecy would be his descendant. Did Baron Gerning give Louis into the care of the House of Hesse who placed him in the care of Prince Frederick III of Hesse Kassel-Rumpenheim (Rumpelstiltskin) who was a Danish General whose wife was an English Princess?  Or did Prince Frederick himself participate in the rescue with Baron Gerning? Did he replace their oldest son William (who may have died at this time) with Louis and did he become Prince William of Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim? 

Queen Louise of Denmark possible granddaughter of Queen Marie Antoinette of France

This Prince was the father of the future Queen Louise of Denmark the wife of King Christian IX and an ancestor of Prince Phillip the Duke of Edinburgh. His wife was the Oldenburg Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark. Was his only son Prince Frederick William (b.1820 d.1884) the true heir to the Bourbon throne of France? In 1851 Prince Frederick William abdicated his rights to the Danish throne to his sister Louise who was to become the Queen of Christian IX. Was this renunciation partially due to the knowledge that he was not truly an Oldenburg or Hesse but a Bourbon in the male line?


Prince Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim the Elector of Hesse